Installing the Solidity Compiler
Solidity versions follow Semantic Versioning. In addition, patch-level releases with major release 0 (i.e. 0.x.y) will not contain breaking changes. That means code that compiles with version 0.x.y can be expected to compile with 0.x.z where z > y.
In addition to releases, we provide nightly development builds to make it easy for developers to try out upcoming features and provide early feedback. Note, however, that while the nightly builds are usually very stable, they contain bleeding-edge code from the development branch and are not guaranteed to be always working. Despite our best efforts, they might contain undocumented and/or broken changes that will not become a part of an actual release. They are not meant for production use.
When deploying contracts, you should use the latest released version of Solidity. This is because breaking changes, as well as new features and bug fixes are introduced regularly. We currently use a 0.x version number to indicate this fast pace of change.
We recommend Remix for small contracts and for quickly learning Solidity.
Access Remix online, you do not need to install anything. If you want to use it without connection to the Internet, go to https://github.com/ethereum/remix-live/tree/gh-pages#readme and follow the instructions on that page. Remix is also a convenient option for testing nightly builds without installing multiple Solidity versions.
Further options on this page detail installing command-line Solidity compiler software on your computer. Choose a command-line compiler if you are working on a larger contract or if you require more compilation options.
npm / Node.js
npm for a convenient and portable way to install
solcjs, a Solidity compiler. The
solcjs program has fewer features than the ways to access the compiler described
further down this page. The
Using the Commandline Compiler documentation assumes you are using
the full-featured compiler,
solc. The usage of
solcjs is documented inside its own
npm install -g solc
The command-line executable is named
The command-line options of
solcjs are not compatible with
solc and tools (such as
expecting the behavior of
solc will not work with
Docker images of Solidity builds are available using the
solc image from the
stable tag for the latest released version, and
nightly for potentially unstable changes in the
The Docker image runs the compiler executable so that you can pass all compiler arguments to it.
For example, the command below pulls the stable version of the
solc image (if you do not have it already),
and runs it in a new container, passing the
docker run ethereum/solc:stable --help
For example, You can specify release build versions in the tag for the 0.5.4 release.
docker run ethereum/solc:0.5.4 --help
To use the Docker image to compile Solidity files on the host machine, mount a local folder for input and output, and specify the contract to compile. For example.
docker run -v /local/path:/sources ethereum/solc:stable -o /sources/output --abi --bin /sources/Contract.sol
You can also use the standard JSON interface (which is recommended when using the compiler with tooling). When using this interface, it is not necessary to mount any directories as long as the JSON input is self-contained (i.e. it does not refer to any external files that would have to be loaded by the import callback).
docker run ethereum/solc:stable --standard-json < input.json > output.json
Binary packages of Solidity are available at solidity/releases.
We also have PPAs for Ubuntu, you can get the latest stable version using the following commands:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ethereum/ethereum
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install solc
The nightly version can be installed using these commands:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ethereum/ethereum
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ethereum/ethereum-dev
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install solc
Furthermore, some Linux distributions provide their own packages. These packages are not directly maintained by us but usually kept up-to-date by the respective package maintainers.
Please be aware that AUR packages are user-produced content and unofficial packages. Exercise caution when using them.
sudo snap install solc
If you want to help testing the latest development version of Solidity with the most recent changes, please use the following:
sudo snap install solc --edge
solc snap uses strict confinement. This is the most secure mode for snap packages
but it comes with limitations, like accessing only the files in your
For more information, go to Demystifying Snap Confinement.
We distribute the Solidity compiler through Homebrew as a build-from-source version. Pre-built bottles are currently not supported.
brew tap ethereum/ethereum
brew install solidity
To install the most recent 0.4.x / 0.5.x version of Solidity you can also use
brew install solidity@4
brew install solidity@5, respectively.
If you need a specific version of Solidity you can install a Homebrew formula directly from Github.
Copy the commit hash of the version you want and check it out on your machine.
git clone https://github.com/ethereum/homebrew-ethereum.git
git checkout <your-hash-goes-here>
Install it using
brew unlink solidity
# eg. Install 0.4.8
brew install solidity.rb
We maintain a repository containing static builds of past and current compiler versions for all supported platforms at solc-bin. This is also the location where you can find the nightly builds.
The repository is not only a quick and easy way for end users to get binaries ready to be used out-of-the-box but it is also meant to be friendly to third-party tools:
The content is mirrored to https://binaries.soliditylang.org where it can be easily downloaded over HTTPS without any authentication, rate limiting or the need to use git.
Content is served with correct Content-Type headers and lenient CORS configuration so that it can be directly loaded by tools running in the browser.
Binaries do not require installation or unpacking (exception for older Windows builds bundled with necessary DLLs).
We strive for a high level of backward-compatibility. Files, once added, are not removed or moved without providing a symlink/redirect at the old location. They are also never modified in place and should always match the original checksum. The only exception would be broken or unusable files with the potential to cause more harm than good if left as is.
Files are served over both HTTP and HTTPS. As long as you obtain the file list in a secure way (via git, HTTPS, IPFS or just have it cached locally) and verify hashes of the binaries after downloading them, you do not have to use HTTPS for the binaries themselves.
The same binaries are in most cases available on the Solidity release page on Github. The
difference is that we do not generally update old releases on the Github release page. This means
that we do not rename them if the naming convention changes and we do not add builds for platforms
that were not supported at the time of release. This only happens in
solc-bin repository contains several top-level directories, each representing a single platform.
Each one includes a
list.json file listing the available binaries. For example in
emscripten-wasm32/list.json you will find the following information about version 0.7.4:
This means that:
You can find the binary in the same directory under the name solc-emscripten-wasm32-v0.7.4+commit.3f05b770.js. Note that the file might be a symlink, and you will need to resolve it yourself if you are not using git to download it or your file system does not support symlinks.
The binary is also mirrored at https://binaries.soliditylang.org/emscripten-wasm32/solc-emscripten-wasm32-v0.7.4+commit.3f05b770.js. In this case git is not necessary and symlinks are resolved transparently, either by serving a copy of the file or returning a HTTP redirect.
The file is also available on IPFS at QmTLs5MuLEWXQkths41HiACoXDiH8zxyqBHGFDRSzVE5CS.
The file might in future be available on Swarm at 16c5f09109c793db99fe35f037c6092b061bd39260ee7a677c8a97f18c955ab1.
You can verify the integrity of the binary by comparing its keccak256 hash to
0x300330ecd127756b824aa13e843cb1f43c473cb22eaf3750d5fb9c99279af8c3. The hash can be computed on the command-line using
You can also verify the integrity of the binary by comparing its sha256 hash to
Due to the strong backwards compatibility requirement the repository contains some legacy elements but you should avoid using them when writing new tools:
emscripten-wasm32/(with a fallback to
emscripten-asmjs/) instead of
bin/if you want the best performance. Until version 0.6.1 we only provided asm.js binaries. Starting with 0.6.2 we switched to WebAssembly builds with much better performance. We have rebuilt the older versions for wasm but the original asm.js files remain in
bin/. The new ones had to be placed in a separate directory to avoid name clashes.
wasm/directories if you want to be sure whether you are downloading a wasm or an asm.js binary.
list.txt. The JSON list format contains all the information from the old ones and more.
Use https://binaries.soliditylang.org instead of https://solc-bin.ethereum.org. To keep things simple we moved almost everything related to the compiler under the new
soliditylang.orgdomain and this applies to
solc-bintoo. While the new domain is recommended, the old one is still fully supported and guaranteed to point at the same location.
The binaries are also available at https://ethereum.github.io/solc-bin/ but this page stopped being updated just after the release of version 0.7.2, will not receive any new releases or nightly builds for any platform and does not serve the new directory structure, including non-emscripten builds.
If you are using it, please switch to https://binaries.soliditylang.org, which is a drop-in
replacement. This allows us to make changes to the underlying hosting in a transparent way and
minimize disruption. Unlike the
ethereum.github.io domain, which we do not have any control
binaries.soliditylang.org is guaranteed to work and maintain the same URL structure
in the long-term.
Building from Source
Prerequisites - All Operating Systems
The following are dependencies for all builds of Solidity:
CMake (version 3.21.3+ on Windows, 3.13+ otherwise)
Cross-platform build file generator.
Boost (version 1.77+ on Windows, 1.65+ otherwise)
Command-line tool for retrieving source code.
z3 (version 4.8.16+, Optional)
For use with SMT checker.
For use with SMT checker.
Solidity versions prior to 0.5.10 can fail to correctly link against Boost versions 1.70+.
A possible workaround is to temporarily rename
<Boost install path>/lib/cmake/Boost-1.70.0
prior to running the cmake command to configure Solidity.
Starting from 0.5.10 linking against Boost 1.70+ should work without manual intervention.
The default build configuration requires a specific Z3 version (the latest one at the time the
code was last updated). Changes introduced between Z3 releases often result in slightly different
(but still valid) results being returned. Our SMT tests do not account for these differences and
will likely fail with a different version than the one they were written for. This does not mean
that a build using a different version is faulty. If you pass
to CMake, you can build with any version that satisfies the requirement given in the table above.
If you do this, however, please remember to pass the
--no-smt option to
to skip the SMT tests.
By default the build is performed in pedantic mode, which enables extra warnings and tells the
compiler to treat all warnings as errors.
This forces developers to fix warnings as they arise, so they do not accumulate “to be fixed later”.
If you are only interested in creating a release build and do not intend to modify the source code
to deal with such warnings, you can pass
-DPEDANTIC=OFF option to CMake to disable this mode.
Doing this is not recommended for general use but may be necessary when using a toolchain we are
not testing with or trying to build an older version with newer tools.
If you encounter such warnings, please consider
Minimum Compiler Versions
The following C++ compilers and their minimum versions can build the Solidity codebase:
Prerequisites - macOS
For macOS builds, ensure that you have the latest version of Xcode installed. This contains the Clang C++ compiler, the Xcode IDE and other Apple development tools that are required for building C++ applications on OS X. If you are installing Xcode for the first time, or have just installed a new version then you will need to agree to the license before you can do command-line builds:
sudo xcodebuild -license accept
Prerequisites - Windows
You need to install the following dependencies for Windows builds of Solidity:
Visual Studio 2019 (Optional)
C++ compiler and dev environment.
Boost (version 1.77+)
If you already have one IDE and only need the compiler and libraries, you could install Visual Studio 2019 Build Tools.
Visual Studio 2019 provides both IDE and necessary compiler and libraries. So if you have not got an IDE and prefer to develop Solidity, Visual Studio 2019 may be a choice for you to get everything setup easily.
Here is the list of components that should be installed in Visual Studio 2019 Build Tools or Visual Studio 2019:
Visual Studio C++ core features
VC++ 2019 v141 toolset (x86,x64)
Windows Universal CRT SDK
Windows 8.1 SDK
We have a helper script which you can use to install all required external dependencies:
This will install
cmake to the
Clone the Repository
To clone the source code, execute the following command:
git clone --recursive https://github.com/ethereum/solidity.git
If you want to help develop Solidity, you should fork Solidity and add your personal fork as a second remote:
git remote add personal firstname.lastname@example.org:[username]/solidity.git
This method will result in a pre-release build leading to e.g. a flag being set in each bytecode produced by such a compiler. If you want to re-build a released Solidity compiler, then please use the source tarball on the github release page:
(not the “Source code” provided by github).
Be sure to install External Dependencies (see above) before build.
Solidity project uses CMake to configure the build. You might want to install ccache to speed up repeated builds. CMake will pick it up automatically. Building Solidity is quite similar on Linux, macOS and other Unices:
cmake .. && make
or even easier on Linux and macOS, you can run:
#note: this will install binaries solc and soltest at usr/local/bin
BSD builds should work, but are untested by the Solidity team.
And for Windows:
cmake -G "Visual Studio 16 2019" ..
In case you want to use the version of boost installed by
scripts\install_deps.ps1, you will
additionally need to pass
as arguments to the call to
This should result in the creation of solidity.sln in that build directory. Double-clicking on that file should result in Visual Studio firing up. We suggest building Release configuration, but all others work.
Alternatively, you can build for Windows on the command-line, like so:
cmake --build . --config Release
If you are interested what CMake options are available run
cmake .. -LH.
Solidity can be built against SMT solvers and will do so by default if
they are found in the system. Each solver can be disabled by a
Note: In some cases, this can also be a potential workaround for build failures.
Inside the build folder you can disable them, since they are enabled by default:
# disables only Z3 SMT Solver.
cmake .. -DUSE_Z3=OFF
# disables only CVC4 SMT Solver.
cmake .. -DUSE_CVC4=OFF
# disables both Z3 and CVC4
cmake .. -DUSE_CVC4=OFF -DUSE_Z3=OFF
The Version String in Detail
The Solidity version string contains four parts:
the version number
pre-release tag, usually set to
commit in the format of
platform, which has an arbitrary number of items, containing details about the platform and compiler
If there are local modifications, the commit will be postfixed with
These parts are combined as required by SemVer, where the Solidity pre-release tag equals to the SemVer pre-release and the Solidity commit and platform combined make up the SemVer build metadata.
A release example:
A pre-release example:
Important Information About Versioning
After a release is made, the patch version level is bumped, because we assume that only
patch level changes follow. When changes are merged, the version should be bumped according
to SemVer and the severity of the change. Finally, a release is always made with the version
of the current nightly build, but without the
The 0.4.0 release is made.
The nightly build has a version of 0.4.1 from now on.
Non-breaking changes are introduced –> no change in version.
A breaking change is introduced –> version is bumped to 0.5.0.
The 0.5.0 release is made.
This behavior works well with the version pragma.