Installing the Solidity Compiler¶
Solidity versions follow semantic versioning and in addition to releases, nightly development builds are also made available. The nightly builds are not guaranteed to be working and despite best efforts they might contain undocumented and/or broken changes. We recommend using the latest release. Package installers below will use the latest release.
We recommend Remix for small contracts and for quickly learning Solidity.
Access Remix online, you do not need to install anything.
If you want to use it without connection to the Internet, go to
https://github.com/ethereum/remix-live/tree/gh-pages and download the
.zip file as
explained on that page. Remix is also a convenient option for testing nightly builds
without installing multiple Solidity versions.
Further options on this page detail installing commandline Solidity compiler software on your computer. Choose a commandline compiler if you are working on a larger contract or if you require more compilation options.
npm / Node.js¶
npm for a convenient and portable way to install
solcjs, a Solidity compiler. The
solcjs program has fewer features than the ways to access the compiler described
further down this page. The
Using the Commandline Compiler documentation assumes you are using
the full-featured compiler,
solc. The usage of
solcjs is documented inside its own
npm install -g solc
The commandline executable is named
The comandline options of
solcjs are not compatible with
solc and tools (such as
expecting the behaviour of
solc will not work with
Docker images of Solidity builds are available using the
solc image from the
stable tag for the latest released version, and
nightly for potentially unstable changes in the develop branch.
The Docker image runs the compiler executable, so you can pass all compiler arguments to it.
For example, the command below pulls the stable version of the
solc image (if you do not have it already),
and runs it in a new container, passing the
docker run ethereum/solc:stable --help
You can also specify release build versions in the tag, for example, for the 0.5.4 release.
docker run ethereum/solc:0.5.4 --help
To use the Docker image to compile Solidity files on the host machine mount a local folder for input and output, and specify the contract to compile. For example.
docker run -v /local/path:/sources ethereum/solc:stable -o /sources/output --abi --bin /sources/Contract.sol
You can also use the standard JSON interface (which is recommended when using the compiler with tooling). When using this interface it is not necessary to mount any directories.
docker run ethereum/solc:stable --standard-json < input.json > output.json
Binary packages of Solidity are available at solidity/releases.
We also have PPAs for Ubuntu, you can get the latest stable version using the following commands:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ethereum/ethereum sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install solc
The nightly version can be installed using these commands:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ethereum/ethereum sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ethereum/ethereum-dev sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install solc
sudo snap install solc
If you want to help testing the latest development version of Solidity with the most recent changes, please use the following:
sudo snap install solc --edge
solc snap uses strict confinement. This is the most secure mode for snap packages
but it comes with limitations, like accessing only the files in your
For more information, go to Demystifying Snap Confinement.
Arch Linux also has packages, albeit limited to the latest development version:
pacman -S solidity
We distribute the Solidity compiler through Homebrew as a build-from-source version. Pre-built bottles are currently not supported.
brew update brew upgrade brew tap ethereum/ethereum brew install solidity
To install the most recent 0.4.x / 0.5.x version of Solidity you can also use
brew install solidity@4
brew install solidity@5, respectively.
If you need a specific version of Solidity you can install a Homebrew formula directly from Github.
Follow the history links until you have a raw file link of a
specific commit of
Install it using
brew unlink solidity # eg. Install 0.4.8 brew install https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ethereum/homebrew-ethereum/77cce03da9f289e5a3ffe579840d3c5dc0a62717/solidity.rb
Gentoo Linux has an Ethereum overlay that contains a solidity package.
After the overlay is setup,
solc can be installed in x86_64 architectures by:
Building from Source¶
Prerequisites - All Operating Systems¶
The following are dependencies for all builds of Solidity:
|CMake (version 3.9+)||Cross-platform build file generator.|
|Boost (version 1.65+)||C++ libraries.|
|Git||Command-line tool for retrieving source code.|
|z3 (version 4.6+, Optional)||For use with SMT checker.|
|cvc4 (Optional)||For use with SMT checker.|
Solidity versions prior to 0.5.10 can fail to correctly link against Boost versions 1.70+.
A possible workaround is to temporarily rename
<Boost install path>/lib/cmake/Boost-1.70.0
prior to running the cmake command to configure solidity.
Starting from 0.5.10 linking against Boost 1.70+ should work without manual intervention.
Prerequisites - macOS¶
For macOS builds, ensure that you have the latest version of Xcode installed. This contains the Clang C++ compiler, the Xcode IDE and other Apple development tools which are required for building C++ applications on OS X. If you are installing Xcode for the first time, or have just installed a new version then you will need to agree to the license before you can do command-line builds:
sudo xcodebuild -license accept
Prerequisites - Windows¶
You need to install the following dependencies for Windows builds of Solidity:
|Visual Studio 2017 Build Tools||C++ compiler|
|Visual Studio 2017 (Optional)||C++ compiler and dev environment.|
If you already have one IDE and only need the compiler and libraries, you could install Visual Studio 2017 Build Tools.
Visual Studio 2017 provides both IDE and necessary compiler and libraries. So if you have not got an IDE and prefer to develop solidity, Visual Studio 2017 may be a choice for you to get everything setup easily.
Here is the list of components that should be installed in Visual Studio 2017 Build Tools or Visual Studio 2017:
- Visual Studio C++ core features
- VC++ 2017 v141 toolset (x86,x64)
- Windows Universal CRT SDK
- Windows 8.1 SDK
- C++/CLI support
Dependencies Helper Script¶
We have a helper script which you can use to install all required external dependencies on macOS, Windows and on numerous Linux distros.
Or, on Windows:
Clone the Repository¶
To clone the source code, execute the following command:
git clone --recursive https://github.com/ethereum/solidity.git cd solidity
If you want to help developing Solidity, you should fork Solidity and add your personal fork as a second remote:
git remote add personal firstname.lastname@example.org:[username]/solidity.git
This method will result in a prerelease build leading to e.g. a flag being set in each bytecode produced by such a compiler. If you want to re-build a released Solidity compiler, then please use the source tarball on the github release page:
(not the “Source code” provided by github).
Be sure to install External Dependencies (see above) before build.
Solidity project uses CMake to configure the build. You might want to install ccache to speed up repeated builds. CMake will pick it up automatically. Building Solidity is quite similar on Linux, macOS and other Unices:
mkdir build cd build cmake .. && make
or even easier on Linux and macOS, you can run:
#note: this will install binaries solc and soltest at usr/local/bin ./scripts/build.sh
BSD builds should work, but are untested by the Solidity team.
And for Windows:
mkdir build cd build cmake -G "Visual Studio 15 2017 Win64" ..
This latter set of instructions should result in the creation of solidity.sln in that build directory. Double-clicking on that file should result in Visual Studio firing up. We suggest building Release configuration, but all others work.
Alternatively, you can build for Windows on the command-line, like so:
cmake --build . --config Release
If you are interested what CMake options are available run
cmake .. -LH.
Solidity can be built against SMT solvers and will do so by default if they are found in the system. Each solver can be disabled by a cmake option.
Note: In some cases, this can also be a potential workaround for build failures.
Inside the build folder you can disable them, since they are enabled by default:
# disables only Z3 SMT Solver. cmake .. -DUSE_Z3=OFF # disables only CVC4 SMT Solver. cmake .. -DUSE_CVC4=OFF # disables both Z3 and CVC4 cmake .. -DUSE_CVC4=OFF -DUSE_Z3=OFF
The version string in detail¶
The Solidity version string contains four parts:
- the version number
- pre-release tag, usually set to
- commit in the format of
- platform, which has an arbitrary number of items, containing details about the platform and compiler
If there are local modifications, the commit will be postfixed with
These parts are combined as required by Semver, where the Solidity pre-release tag equals to the Semver pre-release and the Solidity commit and platform combined make up the Semver build metadata.
A release example:
A pre-release example:
Important information about versioning¶
After a release is made, the patch version level is bumped, because we assume that only
patch level changes follow. When changes are merged, the version should be bumped according
to semver and the severity of the change. Finally, a release is always made with the version
of the current nightly build, but without the
- the 0.4.0 release is made
- nightly build has a version of 0.4.1 from now on
- non-breaking changes are introduced - no change in version
- a breaking change is introduced - version is bumped to 0.5.0
- the 0.5.0 release is made
This behaviour works well with the version pragma.